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How to Shoot Manual

Today we’re going to talk about how to shoot manual and this is probably one of the most popular topics for beginners and you might be here because you just bought yourself your first camera or maybe you’ve been doing photography for a while but but you want to take your photography to the next level and you’ve been probably hearing from people all the time that you should shoot in manual but you know don’t get me wrong I’m not one of those people who says that you’re not a real photographer if you don’t shoot in manual I personally don’t care what other people do but you have to understand that there’s a big difference between not shooting manual because you don’t know how and why and not shooting manual because it may not really affect your photography very much so you have to understand that there is a difference and if you’re not shooting manual because you don’t know how then you’re really not gonna go far as a photographer so and there’s no reason not to learn because it’s so easy and just by watching this video and some practice you should be able to shoot in full manual and no time I promise so let’s get started okay so I’m filming the back of my camera pointed a few things on my desk and please excuse me for the noise of the fan back there that’s there for a reason and on the left side of your screen I made this simple graphic so it’s easier for you guys to see what I’m doing so when it comes to shooting manual there are three things you have to remember aperture shutter speed and ISO these are the three things that you’re going to be constantly adjusting on your camera when you’re shooting in manual and I know that may sound a little complicated right now but once you understand what they are and learn how they work together it’ll be a lot easier to understand I promise you so the first thing is aperture aperture actually has more to do with the lens than your camera itself and when the aperture is wide open your lens lets in more light into your camera there for making your images brighter so bigger aperture more light smaller aperture less light pretty easy to understand right so let me demonstrate right now I’m going to increase my aperture all the way up to f/2 and as you can see the image gets a lot brighter one thing that’s kind of tricky that you have to remember is that the f-stop number and the size of the aperture that it represents are backwards so the smaller the f-stop number bigger the aperture so for example on this particular lens f2 means bigger than f-16 you know at least it’s not some weird mathematical formula that you have to remember you just have to know that it’s the opposite okay and now I’m going to decrease the size of the aperture by increasing the f-stop number and all the way up to maybe f/8 and I’m going to take another photo and as you can see the image became a lot darker so again bigger aperture more light smaller aperture less light now let’s move on to the shutter speed shutter speed is what determines the amount of time that your sensor gets exposed to the scenery or the light so faster shutter speed means your sensor will get exposed to the light for a shorter amount of time and slower shutter speed means your sensor will get exposed for a longer period of time so faster shutter speed darker slower shutter speed brighter let me show you how that works so now I’m going to increase my shutter speed and as you can see the image became a lot darker I’m gonna take a photo here and then I’m going to slow down my shutter speed just about there and take another photo so that’s pretty obvious right so that’s how you change the brightness of your photo with your shutter speed so now let’s move on to ISO ISO you know the name of it may not be as obvious as aperture or shutter speed but in some ways you could think of it as like a volume knob on your stereo or a microphone so what the ISO does it changes your camera’s sensitivity to light so when you increase the ISO your camera becomes more sensitive to light therefore your images become brighter and when you decrease the ice on your camera your camera becomes less sensitive to light therefore making your images darker let me demonstrate so first I’m going to increase the ISO all the way up to ISO 3200 and then take a picture and then I’m going to decrease the ISO all the way back down to iso 160 and again clearly you can see the difference so by now some of you might be thinking so why do we need three different things to change the brightness why don’t we have just one big tile that says brightness well that is because all these three things have different side effects and some of you might have already noticed when I showed you the side-by-side comparison but let me demonstrate again so right now I’m at f2 which is the widest aperture that this lens allows and Bob Ross is in focus but everything else seemed blurry and that is because with bigger aperture you get shallower depth of field which means with a bigger aperture the plane of view that’s in focus will be shallower so obviously this is useful when you’re taking a portrait of someone with a nice blurry background but what about when you want to take a family portrait or a group portrait with multiple people in this case Bob Ross and Ron Swanson what do you do when you want both of them to be in focus what you do is you decrease the size of your aperture let’s bring it down to maybe five point six and as you can see both of them are in focus now because with smaller aperture again you get deeper depth of field so here’s where it gets really interesting so now both Bob Ross and Ron Swanson are in focus but because of the small aperture your image is too dark everything is underexposed so what do you do you can decrease the shutter speed and make the image brighter ghin and now both Bob Ross and Ron Swanson are in focus and everything is correctly exposed but shutter speed also has its own side effect and if you take a look at the fan in the back on the photo that was taken with the faster shutter speed it looks like the fan is barely spinning but on the photo that was taken with the slower shutter speed it looks like the fan is spinning so fast it’s almost invisible the fans been running at the same speed the entire time I’m recording this and this is all happening because of the shutter speed so let’s say you’re taking a family portrait and there’s a bunch of children and as we all know children are biologically incapable of staying still so you want to use smaller aperture because you want everyone’s faces to be in focus but then now you have to slow down your shutter speed because your image is underexposed so imagine that fan is like any sort of moving objects that you want to take a picture of it could be some wild animal it could be your children so in order to prevent any sort of motion blur you have to keep your shutter speed reasonably high whenever you’re taking a photo and it’s not always the subjects that move your hands move as well because you’re alive and I get a lot of comments from people saying that their photos are not sharp and they’re asking me if they should get a new camera or lens but there’s a very very good chance that your shutter speed may not be high enough so try that first and that doesn’t mean that slower shutter speed is always bad sometimes you want that slower shutter speed to get certain effects or get long exposure like when you’re doing night photography or light trail shots or when you want to portray certain motion of a musician or a dancer you can do a lot of cool things with slow shutter speed you just have to keep your camera incredibly still or use a tripod so let’s say you’re taking a group portrait and there are a bunch of children you want to keep your aperture small so without everyone’s faces in focus but then that under exposes everything so you have to slow down your shutter speed but then because the children are moving you want to increase the shutter speed whenever I’m taking pictures of people or anything alive I usually keep my shutter speed above 125th of a second or sometimes 250 or 500 just to be safe and when you’re shooting in the Sun or when you’re shooting with flash you can obviously go higher than that but now we have to work with what we’ve got right now I’m at f/8 and one five hundredth of a second and as you can see everything is clearly underexposed so what do you do now now is the time you can increase your ISO and now as you can see I’m at ISO 6400 and as you can see everything is nicely exposed everyone is in focus and the shutter speed was quick enough to freeze the movements but using high ISO also has its own side effects remember when I said that ISO is like the volume knob on a stereo or a microphone what happens when you increase the volume to the max you start to get nasty feedback and your sound gets all distorted and it doesn’t sound very good the similar thing happens when you increase the ISO too much on your camera so when you increase the sensitivity of your camera too much it starts to pick up all kinds of noise and grain in your photos and your pictures come out all purple and green and smudgy and it just doesn’t look very good and just to kind of demonstrate that I’m gonna take a photo at ISO 25600 and you’ll be able to see the clear difference so whatever possible you want to keep your ISO as low as possible to get the best results the differences might be subtle but you can still tell the difference between ISO 100 and 200 and 200 and 400 and it just gets worse and worse as you go higher so depending on what you’re trying to do you always want to start with either aperture or shutter speed and then adjust the ISO only when you need to so now that you understand what these are I’m going to put everything into Auto and see what the camera does so with that photo the camera decided to take the photo at f-16 at one 34th of the second which is kind of odd and I sell 2500 so that’s what the camera decided to do in full auto so the problem here is no matter how expensive it is or no matter how good it is your camera is not very smart it’s not going to be able to read your mind on what you’re trying to do so it does not know that if I wanted to take a portrait of Bob Ross with blurry background or if I wanted to keep the ISO as low as possible or if I wanted to faster shutter speed to freeze the movement it does not know I just simply press the shutter button and it did what it thought was the best for the situation so that’s what really shooting manual does for you and your photography shooting manual gives you the photographer the full control so you can take your camera’s ability to its full potential in any situations that way if I want to take a portrait of Bob Ross with a nice blurry background I can do that if I want both Bob Ross and Ron Swanson to be in focus. I can make the aperture smaller and slow down my shutter speed to compensate the lack of exposure and if. I want to increase the shutter speed for whatever reason I can either make the aperture bigger again or increase my ISO.

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